The study feeding into this node looked at sports games in two categories: traditional sports games and counterparts with extra violence. The study members rated the levels of difficulty and frustration in the games. There was a statistically significant difference in these potentially confounding characteristics between the violent and non-violent games. However, I'm placing this node feeding into n2, "Comparison controls for confounding factors such as competition," since the differences were small and were used as covariates in the analysis. From page 734, under aggressive cognition: "A difference score was calculated for each participant by subtracting the average aggressive word reaction time from the control word reaction time. A positive score indicates that the participant identified aggressive words more quickly than control words; thus, larger scores indicate greater aggressive cognition accessibility. Violent game participants displayed higher levels of aggressive cognition accessibility than nonviolent game participants, Ms = 26.28 and 16.85, F(1, 107) = 6.78, p < .05, d = .50. Men were higher in aggressive cognition than women, Ms = 26.40 and 16.73, F(1, 107) = 7.12, p < .05, d = .52. The game by sex interaction was non-significant, F(1, 107) = 0.17, p > .05. None of the game rating covariates significantly predicted aggressive cognition accessibility, all Fs < 1."