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Reward is a feature that we hope will inspire experts to answer important questions and make their answers available to everyone. It allows a sponsor to signal that they think a question is particularly important by offering a financial prize for established arguments that contribute to the establishment or refutation of the topic. A prize winner can keep the money, apply it to reward other questions, or donate it to charity.

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TOPIC HISTORY

Should typing skills or handwriting be emphasized in elementary school?



Statements

Statement Type Title Description Proposed Probability Author History Last Updated
STATEMENT Typing skills should be emphasized in elementary school, instead of focusing on handwriting skills 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT Typing can be faster than handwriting, and speed can be important in school and the workplace 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT As the prevalence of electronic media has increased, more written material takes the form of typed text 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT This node is typed, instead of being written on a piece of paper 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
CITATION Wong, Linda. Essential Study Skills. https://books.google.com/books?id=yL2iAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA349 "An average rate of writing is 30 words per minute." On page 348, Wong notes that the "average rate of speaking during a lecture is 100-125 words per minute" and that some lecturers may speak much more quickly, increasing the importance of speedy note-taking. 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT Practicing handwriting is linked to greater reading skills than practicing typing 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
CITATION Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update 2014?2019 http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/ip-ngn-ip-next-generation-network/white_paper_c11-481360.html "Total Internet traffic has experienced dramatic growth in the past two decades. More than 20 years ago, in 1992, global Internet networks carried approximately 100 GB of traffic per day. Ten years later, in 2002, global Internet traffic amounted to 100 gigabytes per second (GBps). In 2014, global Internet traffic reached 16,144 GBps. Table 1 provides a view of the historical benchmarks for total Internet traffic." 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
SUGGESTEDEDIT Note: Common Core State Standards mandate teaching handwriting skills before and during grade 1, while not mandating it later 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
CITATION Handwriting in the 21st Century Summary of Research. https://www.hw21summit.com/media/zb/hw21/files/H2948_HW_Summit_White_Paper_eVersion.pdf 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT Greater letter-recognition skills in children after three weeks handwriting practice versus typing practice 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
CITATION "The influence of writing practice on letter recognition in preschool children."

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15823243 From the abstract: "After three weeks of learning, we ran two recognition tests, one week apart, to compare the letter recognition performances of the two groups. The results showed that in the older children, the handwriting training gave rise to a better letter recognition than the typing training."

1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
SUGGESTEDEDIT I'm pretty sure its linked to greater cognitive skills in other ways too. Maybe if a google search substantiates that (I believe I've seen studies showing taking handwritten notes aids retention and understanding in students and maybe even adults), if this plays out then maybe change the top node here to be about cognitive skills or something and another argument or two feeding in from other skills. 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT This however is not prove it should be taught more, at best its one factor. To make a serious argument that typing skills should be emphasized, you'd need at least to compare the advantages of faster entry to the drawbacks. And in the future, data entry may rely less anyway on typing. Another Test Edit. 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT One reason is in the future speech recognition technology or gesture reading or brain reading technology may replace typing. Typing seems likely to be less important in the future, so the relative importance of the benefits of handwriting for comprehension and learning are further augmented. 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
CITATION Berninger, Virginia. "The Neural Correlates of Handwriting and Its Affect on Reading Acquisition" https://www.hw21summit.com/biographies-and-abstracts#berninger "Results of assessment, instructional, brain, and genetics research explain a) the developmental milestones in grapho-motor skills for finger movements and in orthographic coding skills in the mind?s eye; b) the role of the orthographic loop between the mind?s eye and the serial finger movements of the hand, which receive both somatosensory and visual sensory feedback, in engaging the mind in written expression of ideas; c) the importance of automatic access to and retrieval and production of legible letter forms; d) the contribution of handwriting to establishing serial organization, which is fundamental to other writing skills?spelling and composing; and e) the benefits of teaching for transfer across levels of language close in time to facilitate efficient, temporal coordination of working memory components" 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT Handwriting is associated with greater cognitive activation and development than typing 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT Handwriting information may lead to greater understanding than typing, as note-taking was found to be more beneficial when handwritten 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
CITATION Pam Mueller and Daniel Oppenheimer. "The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard." http://pss.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/04/22/0956797614524581.abstract From the abstract: "The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers? tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning." 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
STATEMENT Multiple, critical brain regions activated by free-hand writing 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
CITATION Arif, Ahmed. Analysis of Text Entry Performance Metrics. http://www.asarif.com/pub/papers/arif_ticsth09.pdf Page 3. Chart. QWERTY full-length keyboard users clock in over 60 words per minute, as opposed to the ~30 words handwritten. 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0
CITATION James, Karen and Laura Engelhardt. The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children. "Preliterate, five-year old children printed, typed, or traced letters and shapes, then were shown images of these stimuli while undergoing functional MRI scanning. A previously documented ?reading circuit? was recruited during letter perception only after handwriting?not after typing or tracing experience. These findings demonstrate that handwriting is important for the early recruitment in letter processing of brain regions known to underlie successful reading. Handwriting therefore may facilitate reading acquisition in young children." 1.0 NickAdams Details 2016-09-28 22:27:34.0