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GPS/CSO radio sources are the progenitors of the large scale radio sources
By: Chris O, on 22 Jan 2017

GPS/CSO cartoon

GPS/CSO are small radio sources in the nuclei of galaxies. They are thought to grow into large radio sources which extend beyond their host galaxies into the intergalactic medium.  There is some evidence that at least some of these sources are not going to become large radio sources. 


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Topic Statement Status Last Changed: 22 Jan 2017
vlbi proper motions observed
GPS/CSO radio sources are the progenitors of the large scale radio sources
Arguments in Favor
Arguments against
Too many GPS CSO sources
Assume GPS sources live long enough
gps/css associated with star formation
Assume confinement enhances radio power
Assume signature of star formation lasts as long as radio galaxy lifetime

Very long baseline interferometry observations show that the ends of the sources are moving outwards through the galactic interstellar medium at velocities of about 10% of the speed of light. Reference An & Baan 2012 http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...760...77A


GPS/CSO are small radio sources in the nuclei of galaxies. They are thought to grow into large radio sources which extend beyond their host galaxies into the intergalactic medium.  There is some evidence that at least some of these sources are not going to become large radio sources. 




There are too many small sources compared to the extrapolation from the large sources (O'Dea & Baum 1997, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AJ....113..148O).  The "extra" small sources could be objects that remain small. 


We assume that GPS/CSO sources have sufficient lifetimes (e.g. at least one million years) to grow to large size.  There is strong evidence that large radio sources live at least 10 million years (e.g., Parma et al. 1999,  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999A%26A...344....7P).  However, it is not clear that the  sources that are observed to be small live that long. 


Tadhunter et al 2011 http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MNRAS.412..960T  found that GPS/CSS are more often in star forming galaxies than large radio galaxies.

The confimement of the sources by dense star formation regions may enhance radio power.


The expansion of the radio source will reduce the energy of the radiating particles and thus reduce the luminosity. Confinement of the radio source will keep the radio emission brighter (e.g., Barthel & Arnaud 1996,  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996MNRAS.283L..45B).


If the lifetime of the star formation is long compared to the radio source lifetime, then the lack of star formation in large radio sources compared to the small radio sources is significant. On the other hand, if the signatures of star formation are short lived (< 10 Myr), some large radio sources that were star forming then they were small have outlived the star formation episode. 


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